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Indexing – Meaning, Concept, Benefits, Process & more

Last Updated Date - Mar 21, 2023

Investors with long-term goals tend to invest in a more off-handed and passive way. One of the most common ways to do so is by investing in index funds. Investing in index funds is for those who are looking for long-term goals.

In this type of investing, the investors can own small portions of shares of various companies in a particular market.

The investor will be investing in a foray of assets that replicates or mimics an index, therefore, you will hold shares of multiple assets without having to invest in them separately. Here is everything you need to know about indexing or index investing.

What is an Index?

Index is a parameter for the investors that track the performance of the asset class like stocks, bonds, and various other securities in the market.

These indexes tend to tell whether a particular market, industry or a bunch of companies are going up or down. There are plenty many indexes in the securities market that you can choose from.

What is an Index Fund?

IndexingNow, that you understand what is an index. Let’s understand what an index fund is. An index fund is a type of investment instrument that can be equated to a mutual fund or exchange-traded fund.

This investment instrument tracks the performance of a certain type of index, allowing the investors to have a much more diversified portfolio than simply investing in individual stocks or bonds.

These funds try to duplicate the performance of the index by buying the stocks of the companies involved in the index. They do not push to get better and higher returns nor do they try to beat the market.

This makes them highly diversified and profitable as the risk is spread across various stocks in the industry and does not rely on only one company and its performance. They are also less affected by the swings in the market.

If you want to reduce the risk in the portfolio, then index funds are a great way to do so.

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    Ways to Invest in Index Funds

    You can invest in index funds via two types of options:

    Mutual Funds

    Mutual funds are created by pooling the investors’ money and investing in pre-decided assets. These funds are actively managed by the firms, as their main objective is to beat the market.

    These mutual funds are brought by the investors from the firm and not from any stock exchange as they are not traded. These funds provide significant diversification in terms of asset class along with liquidity.

    As these are actively managed funds, the fees can be quite high compared to other passively managed funds.

    ETFs or Exchange-Traded Funds

    unlike, mutual funds, exchange-traded funds as the name suggests are traded on the stock exchanges. Multiple types of assets can be added to the ETF.

    They are passively managed and therefore are cheaper with low fees. They also provide better liquidity and better access when compared to mutual funds.

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    Advantages of Indexing

    Following are some of the benefits of indexing:

    • Requires basic knowledge: Building a portfolio by researching and studying individual stocks requires in-depth knowledge of the market. However, with index funds, you can start investing even with a basic knowledge of how an industry is performing without having to understand various intricacies.
    • Low cost: These are not always actively managed funds, which means they are passively tracked. And passive tracking means, the cost of managing the fund is significantly low.
    • Diversified: You can reduce the overall investment risk by investing in a variety of stocks and securities offered by index funds.
    • Convenience: When it comes to investing in stocks, it can be difficult to track the best-performing ones and invest in them individually. Index funds make it easy for investors by offering some of the best stocks in a bundle.

    Disadvantages of Indexing

    Following are some of the drawbacks of indexing:

    • No choice in composition: the indexes are already pre-made. This means that you will not have any say in its composition. You cannot choose any particular holdings and neither can you remove one from the fund.
    • No floor losses: with index funds, there is no downside protection. This means you might end up losing all their investment.
    • Cannot beat the market: with most index funds, you cannot outdo the market and therefore can only earn market returns.

    How to Invest in Index Funds?

    Now that you know what are index funds and their advantages and disadvantages. Here are some of the steps that you as an investor will have to follow to invest in these funds:

    1. Choose the index: The very first step is to pick the index that you think will perform better in the coming months or years. You can choose any index based on the sector, industry, or type of companies that will outperform others to beat the market successfully.
    2. Choose the fund: Now that you have picked the index, the next step is to pick the fund. There are multiple mutual funds and exchange-traded funds that you can choose from. Always compare the funds based on their profitability, dividend yield, expense ratio, etc.
    3. Invest in index funds: Lastly, you will have to invest in the chosen funds. For this, you will require to open a brokerage account with a reliable broker while keeping in mind various factors like costs, reliability, etc.

    Things to keep in mind

    Here are some of the things that should be kept in mind about index investing:

    • Minimum investment: this is one of the most crucial factors that every investor of index funds shall check beforehand. They should be the minimum amount the brokerage firm or fund asks as an investment to participate in the fund.
    • Account minimum: always check the minimum account requirement posed by the brokerage companies. The minimum account requirement is the amount that you will have to invest with them to open an account.
    • Trading costs: trading costs is the brokerage fee that you will have to pay to the brokerages while buying or selling any type of asset. Be careful about the amount paid by the brokerage, by comparing various brokerages to choose the one with fair fees.
    • Expense ratios: remember to learn and cross-check the expense that you will have to bear when investing in an index fund. You will have to pay certain fund management fees to the fund managers. Make sure that the fee is not higher than 0.2% of the value of the fund.


    You can easily make good gains by meeting the market instead of chasing the market. With index funds, you can invest in a wide market with much ease with these funds which covers a variety of asset classes.

    These funds are also a very popular choice among those who want to invest as part of their retirement strategy.

    As the securities market is becoming riskier with each passing day, having surety and safety of index funds is a great way to mitigate the risks posed by volatile investment conditions.

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